Organic Chemistry

Download e-book for iPad: A Text-book of Practical Organic Chemistry Including by Arthur Israel Vogel

By Arthur Israel Vogel

ISBN-10: 0582442451

ISBN-13: 9780582442450

The most effective books there's instructing functional natural chemistry. The 3rd variation of this booklet (first released in 1956) is de facto of far better use to the pastime chemist, because it doesn't utilize any hideously pricey glassware/apparatus or unique reagents or catalysts.

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Extra resources for A Text-book of Practical Organic Chemistry Including Qualitative Organic Analysis. Third Edition

Example text

P. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. 131° 1,14. System in which the two components form a compound possessing a congruent melting point. This system, which occurs less frequently than that of Section 1,12, is of considerable interest. The equilibrium diagram depicted in Fig. , capable of existing as a solid compound in equilibrium with a liquid of the same composition. Point A is the melting point of benzophenone (47 -7°) and B that of diphenylamine (52-8°). When diphenylamine is added to benzophenone, the freezing point is lowered along the curve AC.

The curve EB represents the equilibrium between solid B and the liquid. , gold - antimony, AuSb2). 1,16. System in which the two components form a continuous series of solid solutions. In all the preceding examples the individual components (A or B or AxBy) form separate crystals when solidifying from the melt. ). Before studying the equilibrium diagrams of these systems, the significance of the term solid solution must be made clear. A solid may dissolve completely in another solid to form a solid solution in a manner analogous to the dissolution of one liquid in another to yield a liquid solution.

The various melts are then fractionally distilled. If necessary, the fractional crystallisation may be repeated. 1,6. Steam Distillation. Distillation of a Pair of Immiscible Liquids. Steam distillation is a method for the isolation and purification of substances. It is applicable to liquids which are usually regarded as completely immiscible or to liquids which are miscible to only a very limited extent. In the following discussion it will be assumed that the liquids are completely immiscible.

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A Text-book of Practical Organic Chemistry Including Qualitative Organic Analysis. Third Edition by Arthur Israel Vogel

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